Parameters & Definitions


For simplicity countries are based on present day borders but with additional data to focus the search:

  • Netherlands refers to the area prior to the North South split in 1609.
  • North Holland is approximately the same as the present day borders.
  • South Holland / Flanders is approximately present day Belguim.
  • Britain is the EU politically correct name to cover Welsh, Irish, Scottish, and English art, which does not recognise their indigenous differences.


The century of inception or greatest usage.

Period & Style

Period uses the Architectural movement of the country of origin. Hence Italian Baroque commenced after the Council of Trent in 1545, North German Baroque started after the Thirty Years War in 1648.

Style is “in the manner of” which can also mean in the manner of making of a period – or – in the manner/style of an artisan.

Common Names – Vernacular and Academic

There are numerous invented and conflicting vernacular names for frames, for example “Dutch Ripple Frames” is a mid 20th Century invention to describe frames covered in ripple mouldings. The frames described are actually of Mid European manufacture. Dutch frames usually do not have ripple decoration – and if used, rarely have more than one band. Academic names are more accurate by referencing the style of a specific designer, craftsman, place, shape or Latin name etc. For example Carlo Marratta, Chippendale, Herrera, architrave, ogee etc.

In the interest of a “universal” frame search both Vernacular and Academic names are given.


  • Antique – frames made before 1933.
  • Vintage – authentic frames of a style or date, post 1933.


A basic description of substance and surface